Enugu State was created on August 27, 1991 out of the then Anambra State (from what was formerly known as Anambra North) by the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. It’s capital is Enugu. The name of State derives from its capital city, Enugu. The word “Enugu” means “the top of the hill”. Situated in inland south eastern Nigeria, Enugu State shares boundaries with Anambra on the West, Abia and Imo State on the South, Kogi on the North while Benue and Ebonyi on the East. Enugu was the headquarters of the former East Central State and Eastern Nigeria. The state is situated on the highlands of the Agwu. Udi and Nsukka Hills to the east while Oji-River basin to the west.
Lying partly within the semi-tropical rain forest belt of the south, the State spreads towards the north through a land area of approximately 7,161 sq km. Its physical features change gradually from tropical rain forest to open wood-land and then to Savannah. Apart from a chain of low hills, running through Abakaliki, Ebonyi State in the east to Nsukka in the north-west, and south wards through Enugu and Agwu, the rest of the state is made up of low land separated by numerous streams and rivulets, the major ones of which are the Adada River and the Oji River.
Enugu State has a good climatic condition all the year round. The hottest month is February with about 87.16 oF (30.64 oC), while the lowest temperature is recorded in November/December, reaching about 60.54 oF (15.86 oC). Lowest rainfall of about 0.16 cubic centimeters (0.0098 cu in) is recorded in February, while the highest rainfall is recorded in July at about 35.7 cubic centimeters (2.18 cu in).
With an estimated population of 3,267.837, (1,596,042-males and 1,671,795- females) (2006 Census), it ranks 23rd out of the 36 States of the federation. Enugu State is also densely populated, and is rated at 460/km2 (1,200/sq mi). This is regarded as one of the highest in Africa. Demographers have however, continually put the realistic population figure of Enugu State at six million. The State’s area code is 042.